Saturday, March 14, 2020

Patients and Cancer Essays

Patients and Cancer Essays Patients and Cancer Essay Patients and Cancer Essay This paper explores different peer-reviewed articles that attempts to shed some light on the phenomenon of the lived experience of patients with cancer; supporting the fact that individuality is a huge factor in the care of cancer patients. Manu types of cancers exist and patients should be treated as individuals versus as a disease or diagnosis. As oncology nurses we accumulate knowledge on a daily basis that may be revised in practice. Therefore, it becomes our innate duty to visit the literature and gain the understanding and evidence that will help us in improving our practice of nursing. The articles, however, vary in the type of cancer with different treatment modalities and the collection methods but have the commonality of all participants being diagnosed with Cancer. The findings showed that patients have many unmet psychosocial and emotional needs among others but exercise hope when family support is present. These shortcomings or gaps in knowledge can alter how care is received and administered. We as nurses, have a lot of work to do in assisting patients feel more individualized with the diagnosis of Cancer. Each day in practice we meet new patients and see old ones and we may see them smile or get sad or display other emotions but as nurses do not take enough time to find out what our patients face and how they handle their diagnoses of cancer. As nurses we get so wrapped up in our daily tasks. Cancer is an experience that can threaten not only the end of one’s life, but also touch all aspects of the person’s existence, making it significant to them and if it is significant to them then it should also be the same to us. Cancer also imposes so many burdens on patients, families and the society at large. So large that it is labeled the silent killer and will overtake disease as top killer by the end of 2010 (foxnews. com). I chose this topic because I realize the gap in knowledge and communication between what happens to patients between diagnoses, treatment and discharge, up to the time they return for follow -up cycles to the time they may hear that the cancer has either metastasis or have been cured (in remission). Just knowing that your life will change is significant enough. We, as nurses are first line in the patient care area. The Doctor walks in and tells the patient that they have cancer and then walk out and the nurse is faced with the aftermath, the questions and the emotions that follow. The nurse is also the one that administers the chemotherapy and various radiation treatments and again is faced with questions and emotions. At discharge the nurse again becomes the one that is faced with questions and emotions. It may not be possible to answer all the questions and for the ones that we are not sure of, we can refer or ask the doctor to explain but having the knowledge of what it may be like for these cancer patients can help with how we approach these questions and the treatment options. Having this knowledge can help in terms of support, teaching, prevention and alleviation of suffering, enabling us to give more culturally congruent care. Literature Review In Arber et al. s (2008) article on the lived experience of patients with pleural mesothelioma it was found that these patients had many unmet psychosocial and emotional needs and that there was a lack of information provided to patients . A feeling of isolation was also reported. All patients and care givers experienced frustration due to the physical experience (Arber et al. , 2008). It was showed that these patients wanted to tell their stories and wanted people to listen. The methodology was phenomenology which was appropriate for th e study with unstructured interview questions allowing for participants to speak their mind and their experiences. As nurses sometimes we are unsure of what to say for fear of saying the wrong thing. There was also evidence of loss of intimacy with partners. Macmillan Cancer support (2006) states that four out of ten couples where one partner has cancer report sexual problems (Arber et al. , 2008). The study was done only on patients with mesothelioma and was very small making it hard to generalize to other cancer areas. The patients and families were only from a specialist palliative community center assuming that these patients had incurable mesothelioma. Benzein et al. , (2005) studied cancer in palliative care in home care and made hope the center of the study. The findings showed that the participants used hope to live as normally as possible. The meaning of the experience of hope seemed to be a will to live for a while longer (Benzein et al. , 2005). The structural analysis revealed the hope of being cured, a hope of living as normally as possible, a presence of confirmative relationships and reconciliation with life and death. The commonality between this article and Arber et al. , 2008 is that these cancers were incurable, however in this article the study group was a mix of males and females ages 54-83 with a median age of 65. The previous article failed to reveal the ages of the participants, making it difficult to impact practice. The other difference is that the latter was done in the patient’s own homes while the study on patients with mesothelioma was done in a different setting that may influence the outcome. Being surrounded by loved ones in the home setting would allow the patient to feel more human, than being in a hospital setting where they are just another patient and loved ones may not be able to visit at lib, which in the end has a negative impact on recovery. Demir et al. , (2008) in their quest to understand the experience of breast cancer survivors that underwent biopsies used a phenomenological approach to reveal three themes that were evident among participants, namely, the need for information, fear and spiritual needs. The study also suggests that results may be different considering different emotional investments in their breasts, sociocultural factors and age. The study was a very small group of twenty with the interviews being held in an unused room outside the clinic before the patients postoperative visits. Having the interviews on postoperative days may further aggravate feelings of fear that could invalidate the study. When compared to the study done by Perreault et al. , (2005) similarities were evident as participants exhibited fear and uncertainty. This study studied women with breast cancer and examined their experiences. Both studies used the interpretative phenomenological approach to gain insights. What this study included that would help with validity that Demir et al. , (2008) did not include was the staging. The staging of the cancer can have a great impact on the emotions and fear and response to experience. This sample size was only six person who lowered the reliability and generalizability. Lacey, (2005), researched breast cancer and support aides revealed that participants were identified as being too overwhelmed and stressed to make decisions about their care. They trusted their physicians to make the appropriate choices and appreciated and welcomed the support of family members. They also expressed hope. These same sentiments were echoed somewhat in Demir et al. , (2008) and Perreault et al. , (2005). All 3 studies involved breast cancer and the study method was the same and even though the same size and ages may have varied, it may prove to offer some insight as to what these women face adding to the validity. All 3 papers also suggest that more research may be necessary to facilitate the different decision- making and emotional abilities. The definite commonality expressed and assumed mong all these articles so far is the need for information especially at different stages. Molen, (2000) study sought to identify the different information needed for people with cancer. Adequate, appropriate and timely information can be a key element for many people in managing the experience of cancer. Different themes emerged from the research. There w as a deficit in information regarding self-identity, body image, and family, social and work relationships. A cancer diagnoses impacts all areas of an individual’s life, and life management information is equally as important as medical information. Molen, 2000). Cancer was viewed as an intrusion and illness engendered feelings of vulnerability that impacted on their normal coping mechanisms. This research had six participants all with different types of cancer with ages ranging from 45 to 65. The end results showed feelings and questions received on a daily basis but the sample size was so small and the age range was so limited that may lessen the reliability. However, further research may be needed to identify the different ages when information becomes such a deciding factor or the processing of information since all the participants were older. Similarly, information needs proved to be a big part of the equation as evidenced in another research study done by Molen (2005). However the type of information, the amount and to what depth varied considerably between individuals proving that information needs are unlikely to remain static and consequently, will change throughout the cancer experience. The literature highlights the importance of information giving, however; many problems are encountered with its provision. People with cancer frequently express dissatisfaction with the information given to them and experience difficulty in retaining and processing information. The cancer experience invariably begins before the point of diagnoses and information needs clearly change over time. (Molen 2005) Jones et al. , (2006) in researching the lived experience showed similarity with the Molen, (2000) themes that emerged from the different stories including changing concepts of self, the significant of relationships, being different from the past and temporality. These patients were bone marrow transplant candidates who were experiencing a mountain of emotions that they believed were affecting them negatively. From their stories it was clear that all participants underwent many physical and emotional changes. Taking it to a different level Meenaghan et al. , (2010) researched elderly patients and their lived experience and concluded that all participants experienced fear and shock at diagnoses but also experienced hope despite their age. With good support from family and friends participants exhibited hope and revealed that they learned to cope with the diagnoses and its treatments. As expressed in Perreault et al. (2005), the same fear and uncertainty was revealed and the same method of data collection and interview was used. Walker et al. , (2009) attempted to understand the lived experience of cancer patients undergoing photodynamic therapy. Analysis of the data yielded six themes, the impact on day –to- day life, existential meaning, the physical effects of treatment, and the kaleidoscope of emotions, information gap and family burden. This article summarizes all the feelings ex pressed by all the previously reviewed articles. If not all a least one of the articles expressed the same feelings which leads nurses to believe that these are the expected emotions, fears and expressions that can be experienced and that we all should be mindful of the factors that to suffering and the nursing interventions that can be used to address these multiple dimensions of suffering. All these studies used the phenomenological approach which is appropriate and if not the interpretative design the descriptive. Sample sizes and ages vary but the information and end results remained the same or close to the same throughout this literature review.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

The Impact of the Internet on Traditional News Media Research Paper

The Impact of the Internet on Traditional News Media - Research Paper Example Here is an attempt to analyze the changes brought about by the advent of internet in the field of TV and print media. Introduction The widespread use of internet has drastically changed the conventions of different news media. The cyber world has hastened the pace and spread of news in an amazing manner which downgraded even the scope of scoops. The advent of internet has thus marked a lot of changes in news media and subverted even the concepts of news upside down. The impact of internet on TV and Print media The vast and ever spreading world of cyber space contributed a lot to the growth of news media and triggered a revolution in the field of communication system. For a journalist, let him associate with either print media or visual media, internet is a powerful source to collect news. In olden days, as we know, the exchange of messages was carried out by the so-called messengers. Later postal system came into exist which made the communication system a little bit comfortable to s hare something between two people of different corners. The inventions of telegraph and wireless technological system opened the new vistas of exposition and exchange. In modern epoch, for any person who wants to know more about a topic or a news event can easily find out the detailed information by logging on websites. Thus, internet is undoubtedly a good source of news for both the reader and the journalist. In olden days the prime source of news for the newspapers was only the reporters deployed in the different places. The quick access into the cyber world and its updating facility in every second is one of the prominent features of online news portals. This has created a lot of changes in mass media by compelling the media persons to broadcast breaking news in visual media because the world is changing rapidly and the people are eager to know about those changes in the world. The different media across the globe compete each other in providing latest information for its readers /viewers keeping vigil on each and every change in the world. All the TV channels and print media keep their own website, on which, they publish breaking news or news flash. As Seema Shrikande maintains in her essay titled Internet Impact on Media, a â€Å"major influence of internet has been to remove geographical limits on the reach of media outlets and no longer are news media restricted to one city or region†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦(Shrikande,Seema- Even local news papers have their online editions and they are available to the readers in every corner of the world. Again this feature also, will mount pressure on the newspaper persons as they have to survive in the world of competition. So they are supposed to attract their readers by means of captivating designs, swift covering of news events, providing arresting captions etc., to compete in international level. All these are common features of any local newspaper of vernacula r languages. The ever spreading and changing nature of cyber world has marked such changes even in the matter of local news papers. The popularity of the social network sites like Facebook opened up new horizons of public opinion tools. In many Facebook posts, media and its way of reporting are of serious concern. The use of FB posts will definitely affects the quality and objectivity news media as common man can easily put their comments on even very big news channels and they can share it instantly among the friends. Before the advent of internet system, the people were not able to weigh and value of a news event beyond the account of newspapers. But nowadays,

Monday, February 10, 2020

INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

INTRODUCTION TO ACCOUNTING - Essay Example This common set of recognized accounting standards are collectively known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).These standards provide information in how to properly communicate economic events or transactions (Investorwords, 2011). The conceptual framework of accounting provides the required information and guidelines regarding the objectives of financial reporting, the qualitative characteristics of financial information, operating guidelines and composition and required elements of financial statements. According to Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) the goals of financial reporting are to provide information that: Its useful for making investment and credit decisions Is helpful in assessing the value of future cash flows Identifies assets, liabilities and serves to identify changes in those resources and claims (Obaidat, 2007). In order to make financial information useful there are certain qualitative characteristics that all accounting information must po sses to prove useful in the decision making posses. These characteristics are (Cliffnotes, 2011): 1. Relevance-the accounting information provided to the user must make a difference in their decision making. Relevant financial information has to provide either predictive value, provide feedback value or both. Predictive value helps the user forecast future events, such as predicting future stock valuation or future earnings. Information that provides feedback value focuses on confirming or corrects prior information or assumptions . In order for information to be relevant it must be provided in a timely manner so it can provide the right information and at the correct timeframe where it can help guide the decision making process. 2. Reliability-It is expected that financial information must be free of material errors or persona bias. In order to be reliable the information provided must be verifiable, in order to prove that it is free from material errors or bias. As an additional r equirement the substance of the information provided must be a faithful representation of the economic events which it summarizes. The last prerequisite of reliable information must be neutral or free of bias. 3. Comparability-the usefulness of financial information is maximized when it can be compared with similar accounting information of other businesses or enterprises. This comparability can only be achieved when the different companies adopt the same accounting principles. In general comparability extends to all accounting not to only financial statements but to all accounting procedures such as costing, inventory and expense recognition. Since there are variations in GAAP and procedures that can be utilized the company must fully disclose the accounting methods used for the recording of financial events or transactions. 4. Consistency-The principle of consistency simply means that a company must use the same accounting principles and methodology from year to year. If a company decides to change any of its accounting practices and adopts a new method, it is the responsibility of management to prove that the new method provides a more accurate or meaningful representation of the financial information. There are a series of operating constrains and guidelines that serve as the foundation to any financial account. These guidelines are classified as assumptions, principles and constraints (Investorwords, 2011).

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Analysis of the Allegory of the Cave Essay Example for Free

Analysis of the Allegory of the Cave Essay Plato’s â€Å"Allegory of the Cave† presents a visualization of people who are slaves that have been chained in front of a fire their whole lives. These people observe the shadows of different things shown on the cave wall that is in front of them. The shadows are the only â€Å"reality† the slaves know. This is because they have never seen anything else to compare them to. Plato argues that there is a critical flaw in how people mistake their limited perceptions as reality, as truth, and as what they believe to be what is good. The allegory reveals how the flaw affects our education, our spirituality, and our politics. The flaw that Plato speaks about is how people trust what they see and think it is real. In The Allegory of the Cave, the slaves in the caves know that the shadows, shown on the wall by the fire behind them, are real. If they were to talk to the shadows echoes would make the shadows appear to talk back. To the slaves, as Plato puts it, â€Å"the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images†¦. † The allegory also talks about how a slave is later brought out of the cave, in what Plato refers to as â€Å"the ascent of the soul into the intellectual world. † Once out of the cave, the slaves discover that what they thought was real is not. They learn to understand all of these new images as what is real and what is true. Since the slaves have been in the dark for all their lives, both literally and metaphorically, the light blinds them. Representing knowledge, the light is too brilliant for them to see and comprehend. The slaves must be re-educated. They have to learn that the reflections are truer than shadows and the objects truer than reflections. They must deal with a new reality that does not exist within the cave. Plato says that these people who are brought out of the cave must go back into the cave to educate the other slaves. But the only people who should be allowed back into the cave are the ones who are willing to go back. The people must teach the other slaves about the reality outside of the cave, and what is outside of the slaves’ reality. These are representing the philosophers in the allegory. The capacity to learn exists in the soul. Humans need to use their whole soul to learn, not just use their eyes. The allegory states that, â€Å"†¦the power and capacity of learning exists in the soul already; and that just as the eye was unable to turn from the darkness to light without the whole body, so too the instrument of knowledge can only y the movement of the whole soul be turned from the world of becoming into that of being†¦. † According to Plato, human beings’ misperception about â€Å"reality† also affects the spiritual growth of that person. When the slave makes the ascent out of the cave that they have been in their entire life and sees the sun, they will be reminded of God. Plato wrote about how the slaves may even mistake the sun for God because the slaves would have no real perception of what the sun or what God looks like. Having moved from darkness into light, the slaves come to the conclusion that this bright light must be God. Plato argues that one’s soul holds knowledge of what is true. When one learns, one simply remembers. People originate from Heaven where they knew the truth. In the Bible it even talks about how on the outside people are wasting away every day but on the inside they are being renewed every day. One is renewed day by day by remembering things that their soul knows, but that they have forgotten. Also, Plato discredits a government run by the people in the cave who are uneducated and yet still fight for power. He also argues that the people who have made the ascent from the cave must govern, for they know what is real and what is not real because they understand that the shadows are only dreams, or something that is unreal. Plato says it is difficult to go back down into the darkness after somebody has seen the light, but they must. They must educate the slaves about the world above, so the slaves understand that power is not the greater good. Even though it will be about ten times harder to readjust to the darkness after descending into the cave again they will see about ten times better, because now they know the shadows are not real. They will govern with knowledge of good and truth. I believe that the Allegory of the Cave simply states that we must question reality and we must not trust just what our eyes tell us. We must know more than just what the eyes see. The slave in the allegory that makes the ascent and eventually rejects the truth of the shadows comes to know a truer truth. But then they believe what their eyes show them that is on this world. They have forgotten that they must question reality, because how are they to know that this reality is realer than that of the caves’? Somebody may wonder what if we are the shadows in the cave. And who knows. It corresponds to having an imaginary friend when a person is younger. The imaginary friend is very real to whoever the befriended person is, but as the person gets older or makes the ascent to the world of knowledge, they will mostly likely reject their childhood imaginary friends. Everybody is faced with a different reality where they start to believe that what their eyes show them is the only truth. They forget to question things and don’t realize that maybe there is yet another ascent, out of this bigger â€Å"cave† of the light. It may be something that nobody will know about until they reach the point of ascent. Human beings’ knowledge of goodness, reality, and truth will forever be limited by their fear of new ideas and new perspectives. As long as people are afraid of questioning what they cannot see, they will be stuck, chained up as slaves who are trapped in the darkness of the unknown in their very own cave.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four 1984 :: Free Essays on 1984

In the world of 1984, Winston rebels against the party, but not only does he do it in a different ways but his displeasure with the society leads him on to rebel numerous times. First of all, Winston has committed a â€Å"thought crime†, a crime which is used to prevent the individual from thinking and the penalty for committing a thought crime was death (so he thought). Winston knew he was guilty for the crime but at the same time he assumes that he is not going to be detected or caught, at least in he beginning. One thing Winston did was keeping a diary. A diary was of the more serious thought crimes. In his diary, it is pointed out of his sexual frustrations, along with the displeasure of society as a whole. In his diary, he expresses that he longs for the pleasures of the past that were once allowed but no longer due to the power of the Party. However his frustration leads to other things that were also deemed illegal and would eventually lead to his final downfall. Winsto n later goes on and meets a woman named Julia. He knows what he is doing is definitely wrong and is a crime but his dissatisfaction with life and his sexual frustration lead him to the wrong conclusion. That he still thinks that he can get away with this and that the thought police will never catch him. This is where Winston unconsciously seals his fate of being caught but he feels the adventure is well worth the risk. Later in the relationship, they both are aware that the end to them is near. There were a couple of things that Winston owned that were deemed illegal but ironically the glass paperweight seemed to be the most important. First of all, the paperweight serves no purpose in the world that Winston lives in. Another thing about it was that it represented individuality to him because he thought of it as a world in which he and Julia lived in and nobody could touch it, even the Party. Finally, it reminded him of the past, the past in which there was a better world and a worl d in which the Party never wanted anybody to think about again. â€Å"Ignorance is Stregenth†, one of the terms coined along with â€Å"War is Peace† and â€Å"Freedom is Slavery†, is used by the Party as a way of brainwashing the people of Oceania.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Principles of Business Communication

Every customer is entitled to the best quality product and service.   We, at Stovall Home Products, realize this and constantly strive to uphold product excellence and innovation. It was therefore   with considerable concern that we recently learned about your unfortunate experience in connection with the   use of our flagship brand, White-n-Brite Liquid Bleach.As you may have read from reputable consumer product rating publications which have given the brand the thumbs-up, it is our common practice to carry out   rigorous testing, quality control measures, and regular updating of directions to guide consumer usage and care.We thank you for bringing the matter directly to our attention. After careful assessment by our Laundry Products Laboratory, we find that the item you had requested Stovall Home Products to refund was made of material not compatible with either dry or liquid bleaches. Moreover, we have publicly stated, and indicated in the label directions on White-n-Brite Liquid Bleach, that this product is not to be used as a local spot remover.Nonetheless, we understand the aggravation the incident may have caused you.   If you so wish, you can send your personal item, postage-free, to Stovall Home Products and we’ll see what we can do about it.Stovall Home Products definitely does not compromise its integrity, regardless of whether it concerns the flagship brand or new product innovations. As a token of goodwill, we are enclosing introductory single-use packets of White-n-Brite Bleach: Delicates suited for your lingerie and hosiery, as well as in-store coupons of our new Air Fare Home Air Freshener aromas, entitling the bearer to $1 off for every purchase of any three new aromas that include Sea Air, Autumn Spice, Fresh Pine and Spring Flowers.Allow us to do as much as we can for you, as our valued customer.   Let us know if you need further informational details, such as those contained in our free booklets on caring for delicate fabr ics, air freshener or tough stain tips, or any help we can offer on our new products.Yours sincerely,  Carol Smith  Applying the Principles of Business Communications  to Writing Negative MessagesUsing the principles of business communications gleaned from the readings, I made a conscious effort to avoid phrases that may possibly strike the reader, in this case the customer, as rude, hostile, uncaring, condescending or arrogant (Locker, 2000, p. 67).It struck me that when the customer wrote Stovall Home Products to refund her for her stained jacket, she has somehow already made up her mind that it is the product which is defective, and not her misuse or oversight to check both her garment care tags and the White-n-Brite Liquid Bleach label directions. The likelihood that the customer may be resistant to views not supporting hers counts as one obstacle to be overcome (Locker, 2000, p. 68).   I, therefore, used an opening line with an area of agreement or a common ground I obv iously share with the reader (Locker, 2000, p. 68).To make my writing sound like friendly face-to-face discussion, I used words such as we, you, and   our for readability, as well as contractions in cases when it will come out more naturally than two short separate words (Burne, 2006, para. 27-29).   I likewise took into consideration â€Å"the seven Cs of business letter writing† which are: clear, concise, correct, courteous, conversational, convincing and complete (Burne, 2006, para. 4).I avoided stating the negative message outright at the start of   the letter, and I agree with one of the main readings on conveying negative information that when the reader’s ego is on the line, â€Å"opening with the negative message would violate the reader’s expectation and damage rapport† (â€Å"Writing Negative Messages,† 2002, para. 4). I likewise agree that â€Å"the more the negative information concerns the reader as a person, the greater the nee d for psychological preparation† (â€Å"Writing Negative Messages,† 2002, para. 4).I therefore   built up the brand and the long-held tradition of product testing and updating of directions. Soon afterwards, I   incorporated a brief buffer (â€Å"Writing Negative Messages,† 2002, para. 7) leading to the finding that negates the customer’s claim and which forms the key subject or specific concern.   I was especially careful to avoid negative transitions like however, but, and even though just before conveying the company’s findings that show that the customer’s demand was off-tangent, because such transitional words signal a turn for the worse (â€Å"Writing Negative Messages,† 2002, para. 8).I also avoided blaming the customer, who is the reader of the letter, for instigating the problem even if all signs point to it (â€Å"Writing Negative Messages,† 2002, para. 9). Instead of â€Å"spotlighting† the bad news, I po sitioned it strategically, and since â€Å"explicit refusals may be unnecessary and at times cruel† (Guffey, 2000, p. 290), I opted to imply or indirectly refer to the negative reply without seeming unclear about the company’s decision, which is not to grant the refund to the customer because the product was not used according to the stated directions.â€Å"Implication is often an effective way of transmitting an unpleasant idea, that is, the idea is not expressed, yet the receiver understands† (â€Å"Writing About the Unpleasant,† n.d.) based on the facts and explanations presented.   In stating the legitimate reasons for turning down the customer’s request, I have implied that negative reply and I did not dwell too much on the created problem anymore, proceeding, instead, to further cushioning the impact on the customer and offering a workable alternative.By including the line â€Å"we understand the aggravation the incident may have caused yo u,† I wanted to show empathy, or placing oneself in the customer’s shoes to understand how upset she may be and to understand how natural her reaction was to write the company and request for a refund.   On the other hand, I also took note of the fact that there is a â€Å"fine but clear line between being sympathetic about the customer’s problem, on the one side, and implying or taking responsibility for it, on the other† (Erdman & Hildebrandt, 1998, p. 157).It is in this light that I suggested to the customer to send over to Stovall Home Products the stained piece of clothing, and I phrased it to sound non-committal.   I tried to be mindful or â€Å"careful not to take responsibility in circumstances where it’s not appropriate† (Erdman & Hildebrandt, 1998, p. 158). I realize that saying no or refusing a customer’s undue request serves my organization’s welfare and needs (Locker, 2000, p. 214), preventing the setting of   a precedent for company liability (Erdman & Hildebrandt, 1998, p. 158).   I also tried to show that while the offered course of action may not be perfect,   it is â€Å"the best solution currently available† (Locker, 2000, p. 68).At this point, my overriding objective, alongside cushioning the impact of the negative reply to the request, has now turned to educating the reader and reselling the product in question, where a problem spot was encountered, or for new product innovations of the company (â€Å"Writing Negative Messages,† 2002, para. 24).   Because I am also trying to change the customer’s brash judgment about the company’s flagship brand and attempting to correct this customer’s understanding of company policy, I deemed it best to let the reader â€Å"save face† by hinting that changed circumstances â€Å"call for new attitudes or action† (Locker, 2000, p. 68).I then closed on a positive note by offering a counterprop osal (â€Å"Writing About the Unpleasant,† n.d.) Maintaining goodwill is very important, especially in the light of the thrusts of a company like Stovall Home Products, which has relied for many decades on customers’ loyal support.At no part of the letter was an apology extended, because in so doing, it will serve, not just to trigger future company liability but highlight the company’s   â€Å"acknowledgment of the mistake or wrongdoing, acceptance of responsibility, expression of regret, and assurance that the offense will not be repeated†Ã‚   (Kellerman 2006). Except for accepting a measure of   responsibility in order to maintain positive relationship with the customer, and the expression of regret as a sign of empathy, none of these apply in connection with the Anne Thompson’s case.ReferencesErdman, K. & Hildebrandt, H. (1998). Stovall Home Products: Practicing prudence to avoidliability. Business Communication Quarterly, 61, 152-163.Guffe y, M. (2000). Business communication process & product. Ohio: South-Western CollegePublishing.Kellerman, B. (2006). When should a leader apologize and when not? Retrieved May 12, 2008,from, K. (Ed.). (2000). Business and administrative communication. New York: McGraw-HillCompanies.Writing Negative Messages. (2002). Retrieved May 9, 2008, from

Monday, January 6, 2020

How does the mass media reinforce sterotypes - 1508 Words

Stereotyping is a mental activity that is neither natural or necessary; however, due to laziness, upbringing or coincidental experiences (Lester, 1996, p.1), the stereotyping of individuals results in harmful generalisations that ultimately deny an individuals unique contribution to humanity (Lester, 1996, p.1). When the mass media engage in stereotyping, misleading representations concerning members from diverse cultural groups are confirmed. In this essay, a broad range of texts will be used to examine the ways in which the mass media construct and reinforce social stereotypes around gender, ethnicity and age, as well as how the media shape ones imagination though direct images. It cannot be doubted that the media profoundly†¦show more content†¦444). In their literary pursuits, books have the capabilities to teach children what other children do in their culture and what is expected of them. In a study undertaken in America analysing preschool books, boys played a more significant role in the stories by a ratio of 11 to 1 (cited in Newman, 2000, p. 135). Together, boys were portrayed in adventurous roles or undertook activities that required independence and strength, whereas girls were likely to be confined to indoor activities and portrayed as passive and dependent (Newman, 2000, p.135). Similarly, the mass media construct and reinforce social stereotypes around ethnicity, particularly through their stereotypical images and portrayal of ethnic groups performing certain roles in society. Sociological approaches which attach particular importance to racism emphasise the limitations imposed on ethnic minorities by such hostility and discrimination (Haralambos and Holborn, 1995, p.688). The attention is not placed upon the ethnic minority itself, however on the wider society which is the minority group. Negative stereotypes of African Americans in particular have been deeply ingrained in Anglo American cultures since Africans were brought into the country in chains (Lester, 1996, p. 21). The stereotypes served an essential purpose - they justified Anglo enslavement of Africans.